Wireless, IoT (Internet of Things) and data collection in general have changed the duty requirements for the once upon a time RTC (Real Time Clock) / SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) dedicated back-up battery in recent years. Although operating voltage ranges got as low as 1.0V because of low voltage ICs and other components, the overall load increases multi-fold due to Rx/Tx-functionality and an increase in operation frequency. Low voltage operation has also made applications go wireless which were tethered before, making installations cost-effective, but the requirements for battery capacity to increase.
The application environments also became more demanding as sensing technology literally advanced deeper than before. One main characteristic of the new bouquet of applications is that the Lithium battery became the mission critical component. It is time therefore to review the characteristics of the main actors. This new Panasonic white paper is not an application or design-in guide for Lithium batteries. It is meant to give an overview about some of the main chemistries currently available on the market and their general abilities to cope with loads and application demands. Some fundamental reactions and safety concerns will be addressed.